In the New World the term refers to a period when permanent settlements were becoming more common and human groups were making the transition from hunting-and-gathering to agriculture. Bronze Age - A prehistoric period in the Old World, dating roughly from 3000-1000 B. E, defined by the widespread use of bronze as a material for tools, weapons, and ornaments. The lids were usually modeled to represent animal-headed gods or the heads of important people.In evolutionary biology, an "archaic" Homo sapien is a hominin (or hominid) who was slightly more primitive than modern humans (Homo sapiens). Bulb of percussion - A small, rounded protrusion on a flake resulting from the blow that separated the flake from its core or another flake. Carbon dating - see Radiocarbon Dating Cardinal Directions - Collective term for the four primary directions: North, South, East, West.
Biological anthropologists deal primarily with the evolution of humans and primates. "Present" is academically defined as the year 1950 (the year when this term was invented).This is a good way to search for patterns or changes in soil color or plant density (possible indicators of buried features) that may not be visible to a person walking on the ground.Agora - An open-air place of congregation in an ancient Greek city, generally the public square or marketplace, that served as a political, civic, religious, and commercial center.Linguists study languages, especially their development and their function within human culture. Back dirt - The excavated, discarded material (sediment, dirt) from a site that has generally been sifted for artifacts and is presumed to be of no further archaeological significance.Antiquarian - A term generally indicating a pre-20th-century collector of ancient artifacts before the development of scientific archaeology and the establishment of standards for excavating and preserving finds. This material may later be used to refill test pits, an action referred to as "back filling." Balk - A side wall of an excavated unit (square) or a partition of earth left standing between adjoining excavation units.AMS - Accelerator Mass Spectrometry is an absolute dating technique that measures the amount of carbon-14 in an organic object and provides a rough indication of its age. Anthropology - The study of human beings, including their behavior, biology, linguistics, and social and cultural variations.In the United States, anthropology is divided into four sub-disciplines: archaeology, biological/physical anthropology, cultural anthropology, and linguistics.Alidade - An optical surveyor's instrument used in the field to create topographic maps and top plans.Today alidades are being replaced by Total Stations.Alloy - A substance made by the mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal.Alloys are often stronger and more durable than pure metals.